rattlesnake venom effects

This snake is among the population thought to have a higher concentration of neurotoxic venom than populations north of Interstate 10. This is the American ICD-10-CM version of T63.011 - other international versions of ICD-10 T63.011 may differ. Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0378111909003229?via%3Dihub, TASIMA, L. J. et al. Systemic effects may manifest as nausea or vomiting, myokymia, perioral numbness and a metallic taste. Don’t use a tourniquet or apply ice or water. FAPESP - CAPES - CNPq - BIREME - FapUNIFESP The effect of antivenin on intramuscular pressure elevations induced by rattlesnake venom. Don’t wash the wound, as your medical team may be able to use some of the venom from your skin to more quickly identify the correct antivenin. Effects of metal chelators or synthetic pEQW on cromipyrrhin, the major metalloprotease from C. m. pyrrhus venom. Neurologic effects are rare, except in the case of Mojave rattlesnakes. If you’re bitten by one it can be dangerous, but it’s very rarely fatal. Chang CC, Tseng KH. But it's also exceedingly toxic. This article reviews the 6 best delivery apps of 2021. Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan. The venom contains numerous neurotoxins and myotoxins capable of inflicting serious damage on their victims. Leadership Expert. With proper medical treatment, including antivenin, bites are usually not serious.Their venom is extremely potent. Rattlesnake bites can be dangerous but are very rarely fatal to humans. If a snake injected venom, you will feel the effects within 30 minutes. (Etiology) Mojave Rattlesnake Bite can take place when one comes into contact with the venomous snake, usually unintentionally or inadvertently. These are side effects that were rarely seen in previous years. Cardiac arrest and renal failure may ensue (Davidson, 2000). Healthline Media does not provide medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. In recent years, the long-term side effects from rattlesnake bites seem to have increased in severity, though there has been very little research into why this may be. Don’t raise the area above the level of the heart. When a rattler bites in defense, the effects are watered down due to the large size of a person compared to their prey (typically a rodent). Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0378111909003229?via%3Dihub, OGUIURA, N. et al. The various proteins and enzymes in rattlesnake venom have a synergistic effect that has evolved to trigger total cardiovascular collapse of the snake’s intended prey. These toxic proteins are the cause of most of the harmful effects of snake venom. The Mojave rattlesnake, living in the deserts of the southwestern United States and central Mexico, is characterized by its lethal venom that can either shut down your body or tenderize your insides. Providing the highest quality centrifuged, lyophilized rattlesnake, cottonmouth and copperhead venom. These differences between venoms can lead to ineffectiveness in treatment with antivenom. The rattlesnakes fangs inject venom into its prey. Venoms in rattlesnake bites are highly variable—even among members of the same species. Crotamine induces browning of adipose tissue and increases energy expenditure in mice. pEQW shows relatively low affinity for this protease. It is always important to discuss the effect of risk factors with your healthcare provider. And they don’t give a cuss. Therefore, this work highlights the importance of using venoms with and without crotamine in antivenom production. Scientific Reports [online]. The venom may also attack the heart muscle with the goal of causing death. When this happens, it's called an allergic reaction. 4. Remove any tight clothing or jewelry before you start to swell. 2020, vol. Don’t wait to be in pain before you take it, and take as directed by your healthcare provider. Adults with weak hearts will also experience side effects much sooner. 4 thoughts on “ How Venom Affects Humans ” John Conrad Brewster December 4, 2015 at 10:16 am. Mohave toxin or a similar toxin has been detected in the venom of other rattlesnake species. After the strike, the snake flicks its forked tongue in and out, picking up odour particles from the ground to help it locate the trail … Other common symptoms include: Some snake bites may be mistaken for rattlesnake bites when they’re not. WEINSTEIN, S. A., MINTON, S. A. and WILDE, C. E. (1985) The distribution among ophidian venoms of a toxin isolated from the venom of the Mojave rattlesnake (Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus). Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei … Rattlesnake venom also contains neurotoxic components which immobilize the nervous system, affecting the victim's breathing, sometimes stopping it. The Crotalus adamanteus toxin-II (CaTx-II) induced bactericidal effects (7.8 µg/ml) on Staphylococcus aureus, while on Burkholderia pseudomallei (KHW), and Enterobacter aerogenes were killed at 15.6 µg/ml. - Three scorpion venoms caused a transitory decrease in the rate of fluid secretion and increases in the concentration, in pancreatic juice, of total protein and individual enzymes . The presence of crotamine is not the unique variation found in snake venoms. 35-40 [viewed 30 November 2020]. Venoms in rattlesnake bites are highly variable—even among members of the same species. Some snakes combine venom types for a more effective bite, while others only carry one specific form of venom. Image: Sávio S. Sant’Anna, reproduced with permission. Daniela Miki Hatakeyama, PhD student, Interinstitutional Graduate Program in Biotechnology (Butantan Institute – IBU, University of São Paulo – USP, and Institute for Technological Research – IPT), and Laboratory of Herpetology, Butantan Institute, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. These enzymes alter the endothelial lining, break down plasma membranes, and promote edema and hemorrhage. Effects of metal chelators or synthetic pEQW on Cvo Pr V, the major metalloprotease from C. o. oreganus venom. T63.012A is a billable ICD code used to specify a diagnosis of toxic effect of rattlesnake venom, intentional self-harm, initial encounter. This work was performed in the Laboratory of Herpetology of the Butantan Institute as an undergraduate research project by the student Lídia Jorge Tasima, supervised by Dr. Anita Mitico Tanaka Azevedo. All rights reserved. Laguipo, Angela. Then, they compared the effects of each snake’s venom on lizards collected in the same area. Basic phospholipase A2 was identified from the venom of the eastern diamondback rattlesnake. Thanks to its chemical complexity, venom has potential in the development of new medicines. Shallow bites have a better outlook than deeper ones, and healthy adults will recover faster than children or people with weak immune systems. However, T63.011. The new study shows that crotoxin could be made less deadly by packing it in a SBA-15 silica nanostructure. Meal delivery services can range quite a bit in price, which can make it challenging for those on a budget to find suitable options. Am. Roughly half of all attacks from venomous snakes are dry bites. WORLD HEALTH … terrificus), is already well known for being an anti-inflammatory painkiller, and a muscle paralyser. Renner IG, Pantoja JL, Abramson SB, Douglas AP, Russell FE, Koch MK. Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases, Crotamine in Crotalus durissus: distribution according to subspecies and geographic origin, in captivity or nature, https://revistapesquisa.fapesp.br/os-efeitos-da-crotamina-no-metabolismo/, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2009.05.015, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0378111909003229?via%3Dihub, https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-9199-jvatitd-2019-0053, https://www.facebook.com/Biotecnologia.USP, The venoms of sibling snakes may not be so similar, Bufotenine and new perspectives for the treatment of rabies, Treatment of difficult-to-heal venous ulcers with fibrin sealant, Expanding boundaries of the education privatization, Manuscrito explores the connection between language and reality, Relationship of trust is determinant in the purchase and sale of cattle, The man and the physician who greatly contributed to the Pathology teaching in Brazil. If the bite is left untreated, your bodily functions will break down over a period of 2 or 3 days and the bite may result in severe organ damage or death. Antivenin, often referred to as antivenom, is commonly used to treat the effects of local and systemic pit viper envenomations. Protein and enzyme … Moreover, the difference in the abundance of some proteins in the venom composition could be related to the difference in time of death. 01, pp. Each type of rattlesnake bite venom out there is an … If you do this, your blood containing rattlesnake venom will reach your heart more quickly. Most people bitten by rattlesnakes have inadvertently stepped on them — so watch where you’re walking! At higher doses (10 to 50 mug/ml), contracture was observed with spontaneous … Without them, the natural balance would be lost and the effects devastating. There are around 30 different species of rattlesnakes in the world. Besides, other unexpected effects have been found for this protein, one of which is that animals treated with oral crotamine showed a reduction in weight gain when compared to animals of the control group. At … A solution of C. v. helleri venom (15 mg/ml) was prepared using dessicated venom and saline; 0.2 ml were injected sub-fascially so that each of the compartments received 3 mg of venom. Toxins incl. Three scorpion venoms caused a transitory decrease in the rate of fluid secretion and increases in the concentration, in pancreatic juice, of total protein and individual enzymes. To study potential venom toxicity differences, the researchers first sampled venom from 32 pygmy rattlesnakes (Sistrurus miliarius), most of which were found within about 60 miles of one another in Florida. Timber rattlesnake venom is considered a hemotoxin, which means it acts to destroy tissue as an aid in digesting its prey. ICD-10-CM Code for Toxic effect of rattlesnake venom T63.01 ICD-10 code T63.01 for Toxic effect of rattlesnake venom is a medical classification as listed by WHO under the range - Injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes . Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. With a timber rattlesnake bites, skin around the bite will typically swell and turn black and may slough off as the skin heals. Toxic effect of rattlesnake venom (T63.01) T63.004S. The venom from the majority of rattlesnake bites will damage tissue and affect your circulatory system by destroying skin tissues and blood cells … This timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) was photographed by the author while it consumed an eastern gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) in Alachua County, Florida, after subduing it with venom. The venom of most viper species contains phospholipase and trypsin-like serine proteases. Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report: APA. The enzymes it contains help to decrease digestive time and to immobilize the snake’s prey. Cytotoxic venom works on a molecular level by destroying the cell membrane thus destroying the tissue cell by cell. Attend follow-up appointments to ensure your wound is healing well. Available from: http://ref.scielo.org/r4qjkg, Currículo Lattes – Anita Mitico Tanaka Azevedo: http://lattes.cnpq.br/1402209642648415, Currículo Lattes – Daniela Miki Hatakeyama: http://lattes.cnpq.br/1721697241622035, Currículo Lattes – Lídia Jorge Tasima: http://lattes.cnpq.br/0825480555035374, Facebook Instituto Butantan: https://www.facebook.com/ButantanOficial, Facebook Interinstitutional Graduate Program in Biotechnology: https://www.facebook.com/Biotecnologia.USP, Facebook Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases: https://www.facebook.com/JVATiTD, Instituto Butantan: https://butantan.gov.br/, Interinstitutional Graduate Program in Biotechnology: https://sites.usp.br/biotecnologia/, Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases – JVATITD: http://www.scielo.br/jvatitd, Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases: http://www.jvat.org/, Twitter Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases: https://twitter.com/JVATiTD, Your email address will not be published. Annotation … https://www.scielo.org You’ll likely leave the hospital with pain medication. The enzymes it contains help to decrease digestive time and to immobilize the snake’s prey. K. HONG TSENG. Anaphylactic Shock: What You Need to Know, Why You Should Not Mix Bleach and Vinegar While Cleaning, Debra Rose Wilson, Ph.D., MSN, R.N., IBCLC, AHN-BC, CHT, How to Know If Your Perfume Is Poisoning You, The 5 Most Affordable Meal Delivery Services in 2021. If you notice a pungent smell after mixing household cleaners, you should immediately leave the area and try to breathe in fresh air. Effects of scorpion and rattlesnake venoms on the canine pancreas following pancreaticoduodenal arterial injections . 26 [viewed 30 November 2020]. All venoms contain a complex cocktail of proteins and enzymes” (Wisegeek). Download : Download full-size image; Fig. New Antivenom For Rattlesnake Bites Introduced By Rare Disease Therapeutics, Inc. ANAVIP® [Crotalidae Immune F(ab')2 (Equine)] Reduces late effects of venom Projeto de divulgação científica da FSP USP é tema de notícia na Plataforma Cielo – Faculdade de Saúde Pública da USP. Symptoms. Your email address will not be published. Scientists use toxin from rattlesnake venom for chronic pain. Anim. General effects are interference with blood clotting accompanied by excessive bleeding and high or low blood pressure. Med, Hyg, 27, 1053. Rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus) specimen analyzed in the present study. © 2005-2021 Healthline Media a Red Ventures Company. I watched a video a few days ago about a man that was actually addicted to snake venom! Each type of rattlesnake bite venom out there is … A bite from a venomous snake should always be treated as a medical emergency. How small satellites can change space science? About Us . The primary component of snake venom is protein. However, a trend was also observed in relation to geographical distribution. However, if left untreated, the bite may result in severe medical problems or can be fatal. J. trop. Contact with tear gas leads to irritation of the respiratory system, eyes, and skin. Scientists use toxin from rattlesnake venom for chronic pain. CESAR, E. “Os efeitos da crotamina no metabolismo”. Here's why. Laguipo, Angela. You’ll begin to see symptoms immediately, but your symptoms will worsen over time. It often results in two puncture wounds from the animal's fangs. A snakebite is an injury caused by the bite of a snake. They use this rattle as a signal for predators to stay away. SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online A 'billable code' is detailed enough to be used to specify a medical diagnosis. However, the … With a timber rattlesnake bites, skin around the bite will typically swell and turn black and may slough off as the skin heals. They also favor frogs and some small mammals. Lídia Jorge Tasima, MSc student, Interinstitutional Graduate Program in Biotechnology (Butantan Institute – IBU, University of São Paulo, USP, and Institute for Technological Research – IPT), São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Rattlesnake venom The exact makeup and strength of the venom depend on the species of the rattlesnake and where it lives. Rattlesnakes are venomous. It is already known that snake venom can vary due to several characteristics, such as species, geographic distribution, age, among others. A University of Arizona researcher developing a therapy to prevent or delay the dangerous results of rattlesnake and other venomous snakebites in humans has shown that a combination of carbon monoxide and iron inhibits snake venom's effects for up to an hour in animals, a major advance in bringing the treatment to market. Don’t cut the wound, as this doesn’t help and you could cause an infection. blog.scielo@scielo.org. MARINOVIC, M. P. et al. In fact, numerous critters have shown a honey-badger-like moxie when it comes to weathering the effects of chemical weapons. EFFECT OF CROTAMINE, A TOXIN OF SOUTH AMERICAN RATTLESNAKE VENOM, ON THE SODIUM CHANNEL OF MURINE SKELETAL MUSCLE. The venom from the majority of rattlesnake bites will damage tissue and affect your circulatory system by destroying skin tissues and blood cells and by causing you to hemorrhage internally. Blood may appear in … Thus, the venom that did not contain crotamine killed faster. Gene [online]. The toxic effects of venom assist in its function to obtain food for the snake. Seek medical assistance as soon as possible. When a bite from a Rattlesnake occurs, the amount of venom injected cannot be gauged easily. Search for more papers by this author . Required fields are marked *. Available in: https://revistapesquisa.fapesp.br/os-efeitos-da-crotamina-no-metabolismo/. https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-9199-jvatitd-2019-0053. Then, they compared the effects of each snake’s venom on lizards collected in the same area. Thanks to its chemical complexity, venom has potential in the development of new medicines. 1 Crotamine (0.5 mug/ml) augmented the single twitch response of the rat and mouse isolated diaphragm to direct stimulation and prolonged the time course of contraction. Hemotoxic venom will cause the bite victim to experience decreased blood pressure and blood clotting. Our website services, content, and products are for informational purposes only. Severe envenomations may cause respiratory distress, hypotension, altered mental status and death. Due to the relatively rare number of human bites, however, very little is known about the Tiger Rattlesnake’s effect on human populations. The article “Crotamine in Crotalus durissus: distribution according to subspecies and geographic origin, in captivity or nature”, published in the Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases (vol. If your symptoms persist, return to the emergency department. 35-40 [viewed 30 November 2020]. The Tiger Rattlesnake contains a highly potent form of venom that is considered to be the second most toxic of all rattlesnake species. Issac Qureshi. About Us . Our animals are fed a variety of prey items, thoroughly examined frequently and kept in pristine conditions to make certain we continue to produce the highest quality venom purities. Due to a lack of snake education, many see rattlers as a dangerous animal that needs to be eradicated for our safety. As the venom spreads through the lymphatic system, it may produce tender lymphadenopathy in the groin or axilla depending on the extremity affected. Effects of scorpion and rattlesnake venoms on the canine pancreas following pancreaticoduodenal arterial injections. 2009, vol. The variation in the presence or absence of this protein in rattlesnake venom was already known, thus we decided to check if it had any pattern, possible variations in the venom effects and the … There are some common misconceptions about the treatment of rattlesnake bites. Intraspecific variation of the crotamine and crotasin genes in Crotalus durissus rattlesnakes. Whether you're looking to order takeout or groceries, many food delivery apps are available. For that, venoms were collected from more than 200 rattlesnakes, from different subspecies, localities, and from wild and captive snakes. Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report: APA. The obtained results showed that, apparently, there is a tendency of certain subspecies to have more individuals with crotamine than others. 269, 2018. Leadership Training in the UK; Issac Qureshi; Leadership Training in the UK A funnel web spider can kill a grown person, but not your pet pooch. Face masks: how important are they in a pandemic? The presence of crotamine has already been associated with the presence of a gene, which facilitates the explanation of why some populations have more snakes with crotamine in their venom than others since it would be a characteristic inherited from the parents. Even a bite from a harmless snake can lead to an allergic reaction or…, Your body enters shock when you don’t have enough blood circulating through your system to keep your organs and tissues functioning properly. All the contents of this site, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License. Timber rattlesnake venom is considered a hemotoxin, which means it acts to destroy tissue as an aid in digesting its prey. Along with severe pain, Rattlesnake bites usually cause blistering, skin discoloration, headaches, swelling, nausea and tingling to the head. It also contains enzymes, which help to speed up chemical reactions that break chemical bonds between large molecules. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2009.05.015. Besides, other unexpected effects have been found for this protein, one of which is that animals treated with oral crotamine showed a reduction in weight gain when compared to animals of the control group. Toxic effect of rattlesnake venom NOS; The following code(s) above T63.011 contain annotation back-references. Accessed: November 30, 2020. Bearing this in mind, our group seeks to study a wide variety of snake venoms from different groups, analyzing their variations and the effectiveness of antivenom, always pursuing the improvement of the effectiveness of antiophidic serum for the treatment of the most diverse number of medically important snakes in Brazil. These toxic proteins are the cause of most of the harmful effects of snake venom. Toxic effects of substances chiefly nonmedicinal as to source . Trop. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Allergic…. Venom is a complex chemical cocktail made up of a number of different components, each with specific effects in the body of the victim. Anthelmintic effects of a cationic toxin from a South American rattlesnake venom Toxicon. Rattlesnake Antivenin (antivenin crotalidae polyvalent) is an antivenin product used only to treat envenomation caused by bites of crotalids (pit vipers) including rattlesnakes, copperhead and cottonmouth moccasins, and others. The poisonous liquid … It is accurate to say the rattlesnake can see a heat image of its prey and it can strike in darkness if the prey is even slightly warmer than its background. 446, no.1, pp. CaTx-II caused pore formation and membrane damaging effects on the bacterial cell wall. Most rattlesnake venom is composed mainly of hemotoxic elements. Venom helps animals fight off predators, capture prey and deter competitors. Shop Now (651) 276-4268. image copyright LSTM Among the major classes of toxin in venoms are: Necrotoxins, which cause necrosis (i.e., death) in the cells they encounter. Most venom effects on soft tissues peak within 2 to 4 days. Perfume poisoning is rare, but we'll tell you the symptoms to watch for and what to do if it happens. The species and habitat of the Rattlesnake determines how potent its venom is. The macro effect of this cell destruction and the effect we can see with the naked eye is tissue necrosis. Toxicon 23, (Tox 977). Ensaio: Avaliação e Políticas Públicas em Educação, Journal of Aerospace Technology and Management, Revista Brasileira de Estudos da Presença. Our animals are fed a variety of prey items, thoroughly examined frequently and kept in pristine conditions to make certain we continue to produce the highest quality venom purities. Quick video to show the effect of Malayan Pit Viper (Calloselasma rhodostoma) venom on blood. When this happens, your body is flooded with chemicals which can lead…, Sometimes your immune system will identify a substance as harmful, even though it isn't. The swelling seen on cytotoxic bites is the bodys immune system flushing the area with lymphatic fluid in order to dilute the effects … The dose of an antivenin required to neutralize a clinical case of venom poisoning, as well as determining the timing or need to initiate antivenin treatment, is frequently difficult to objectively ascertain. The outlook for a rattlesnake bite is good as long as you receive emergency care as soon as possible after the bite occurs. The toxic effects of venom assist in its function to obtain food for the snake. Snake venom is the fluid secretions from the modified salivary glands of venomous snakes. Crotoxin, extracted from the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, has been studied for almost a century for its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor activities and as an even more powerful muscle paralyzer than botulinum toxin. You may feel fine after half an hour. Providing the highest quality centrifuged, lyophilized rattlesnake, cottonmouth and copperhead venom. The first step in the production of crotaline antivenin is collecting ("milking") the venom of a live rattlesnake—usually from the western diamondback (Crotalus atrox), eastern diamondback (Crotalus adamanteus), South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissis terrificus), or fer-de-lance (Bothrops atrox). Cheap, innovative venom treatments could save tens of thousands of snakebite victims New attention brings hope for people in poor, farming areas The posts are of the authors responsibility and don't necessarily convey the opinions of the SciELO Program. Learn…, When you experience a severe allergic reaction, you may experience anaphylaxis. Applicable To. Ecchymosis is less common after copperhead and Mojave rattlesnake bites. There may also be some swelling, bruising, or discoloration at the site. Most rattlesnake bites contain hemotoxic elements which damage tissue and affect the circulatory system by destroying blood cells, skin tissues and causing internal hemorrhaging. Yet many are killed every year. If you're hiking in rattlesnake territory, then you're probably familiar (and terrified) of the rattling sound that alerts you to the nearby danger of a rattlesnake; however, one University of Northern Colorado researcher gets excited. What are the symptoms of a rattlesnake bite? 2016 Jun 15 ... no significant effect of this peptide could be observed in the course of Candida albicans and Candida krusei infection on Caenorhabditis elegans asssed in vivo. He claimed that it somehow relaxed him and have him sort of a “high” even though the injection sight in his skin turned into a gaping hole of smelly decaying flesh. Most rattlesnake bites contain hemotoxic elements which damage tissue and affect the circulatory system by destroying blood cells, skin tissues and causing internal hemorrhaging. C. CHIUNG CHANG. Anthelmintic effects of a cationic toxin from a South American rattlesnake venom Toxicon. Crotoxin, extracted from the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus, has been studied for almost a century for its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor activities and as an even more powerful muscle paralyzer than botulinum toxin. It is these proteins which cause the toxic effects on the body. You must contact your healthcare provider if your wound shows signs of infection. Antivenom successfully stops the progression of a timber rattlesnake’s venom’s harmful effects. When Antivenom Is Not Enough. Rattlesnake venom is made primarily of digestive enzymes and spreading factors. In most treated cases, people fully recover from rattlesnake bites. You’ll usually experience some pain, tingling, or burning in the area where you’ve been bitten. Systemic manifestations of envenomation can include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, diaphoresis, anxiety, confusion, spontaneous bleeding, fever, chest pain, difficulty breathing, paresthesias, hypotension, and shock. Here are 5 of the…. This may help your medical team identify which species it was that bit you and locate the correct antivenin. Besides, other unexpected effects have been found for this protein, one of which is that animals treated with oral crotamine showed a reduction in weight gain when compared to animals of the control group. Lizards represent about a quarter of the diet of these snakes in Florida. The variation in the presence or absence of this protein in rattlesnake venom was already known, thus we decided to check if it had any pattern, possible variations in the venom effects and the capacity of the antivenom to neutralize both types of venoms. Rattlesnake venom also contains neurotoxic components which immobilize the nervous system, affecting the victim's breathing, sometimes stopping it.

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